Let me do a simple definition before we continue on this post about quantum computing, how they work and the importance of quantum computing in the future.
What is physics?
Physics is the science that studies the behavior and motion of object matter through space and time. It is the study of everything that governs the physical world we live in.
What is quantum mechanics?
The field of physics that study the behavior of tiny and microscopic part of the universe at the subatomic level.
This is the quantum state in which two particle can be at two state at the same time.
The relationship between two particles in superposition where the state of one particle determines the state of the other.
What does Quantum Physics have to do with computing?
Currently computer uses binary bits to access information. This bits are either in zeros or one but with the effect of quantum computing which turns bits to qubits, computer can now process information in either 1, 0 or both giving it the ability to handle larger data. Quantum computers have the ability to solve problems that could take infinite years for a classical computer to solve because of the binary bits and the quantum bits.
Accurate modeling has applications for engineering, medicine, energy production and much more. We could model the reality for the first time. - Richard Feynman
A normal computer bits is made from transistors but for quantum computers, the qubits is made from anything that exhibits quantum properties, this could be an electron, molecule and an atom. With quantum computers, coding the rules of physics into the way atom interact will be possible. Calculation with a classical computer can be very difficult or impossible for a few molecules. Modeling a compound like Calcium monofluoride (CaF) could be relatively impossible for a classical computer but with quantum computing, it can easily model this as the computer itself operates in superposition.
Use of Quantum computing
Unlike classical computers solving macro problems, quantum computers are used to solve problems related to small input and output, or problems that has infinite possibilities. Unlike classical computers, quantum computers can calculate the possibilities of what happens between the times when a molecule react and produces result.
Quantum computers can be used to break/solve equations that rely on the factorization of large numbers thereby being able to break encryption.
Solving problems in real life and different field of studies including distance of locations in geography faster and with different possibilities.